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Press & general enquiries contact

Joanna Godwin-Seidl

Tel.: 43(0) 699 12127679


With thanks to our sponsors: , Theater Drachengasse, Gernot Ottowitz Medienproduktion, Ine& Thomas Photography,

vienna theatre project leading team:

Joanna Godwin-Seidl,  Ine Gundersveen, Gernot Ottowitz, Dave Moskin, Laura D Mitchell & Thomas Schluet

Assist. Director: Lisa Laner

Stage Manager: Paulo A. Schalkhammer

Stage Crew: vienna theatre project

Costumes: Marlene Pein

Set Design: vienna theatre project

Set building: Hannes Stockinger & Julian Brendinger

Sound FX: Dave Moskin

Visual FX: Michaela Pink

Lights and sound tech: Michaela Pink

Poster/Flyer: Gernot Ottowitz 

Poster Image: Michaela Walshe Photography

Photos: Gernot Ottowitz / Ine & Thomas Photography

PR & Sponsorship: Joanna Godwin-Seidl

Film/trailers: Gernot Ottowitz

In House: Beate Platzgummer and team




The actress and director studied theatre in the United Kingdom. She has been running VIENNA THEATRE PROJECT since 2006. German language theatre directing credits include Mädchen Mit Den Schwefelhölzern workshop (Ronacher Theater); Hautnah (Patrick Marber) for Theaterverein Vision (OFF Theater) Recent acclaimed musicals include Tick Tick...Boom! Marry Me A Little, Ordinary Days (Theater Drachengasse).

She enjoys choosing plays with social & political content; Dirt (Theater am Petersplatz), The Meeting (Black History Month/Theater am Petersplatz) to name a few. In 2014 she directed the hit play Topdog/Underdog (Theater Drachengasse), was pleased to receive rave 

reviews for Disgraced & The Invisible Hand (2016) and starred in Sarah Kane’s 4.48 Psychosis (Dialog im Dunkeln).


She directed the sell out shows The Last 5 Years ( Brick 5). The Who & The What by Ayad Akhtar (Theater Drachengasse). She further directed , Building the Wall by Schenkkan , Crossing Jerusalem - Julia Pascal & The Flick by Annie Baker and the opera Barber of Sevilla at Klassikfestival Schloss Kirchstetten.

She produced A Bedfull of Foreigners at MUTH with Art for Charity, directed The Mountaintop by Katori Hall (Pick of the Week) and Nina Simone: Four Women by Christina Ham, again celebrated by press and public. Showed in Kultursommer Wien Emigranten. She was on stage in Relative Values by Noel Coward at Le Studio Moliere, in November 2021 & 2023. Lady Day at Emerson's Bar & Grill and Dreck (Kultursommer Wien) were two of her latest director hits. She enjoyed critical acclaim on stage as lead character  Persephone in Airswimming by Charlotte Jones.  Recently, Joanna enjoyed standing ovations for The P Word -  which she directed.


During the pandemic she started reading “1001 Nights” live and online nightly in 2020. So far with this project the team has reached over 2,000,000 people globally. For more info, and for upcoming shows.

Part of Black History Month U.S. Embassy Vienna
12th - 24th February 2024


Randall Galera, Peter Steele & Lynne Ann Williams

Stage Crew: Paulo A. Schalkhammer

Directed by: Joanna Godwin-Seidl

12th February 2024 – 24th February 2024, 20:00

Running time  1 hr 30 minutes, short intermission

Theater Drachengasse, Drachengasse 2, 1010 Vienna or Tel.: 01/5131444


For news updates visit

Supported by U.S. Embassy Vienna for Black History Month 2024


One word can mean so much. The beautiful “N” play, movingly dramatizes the struggle between playwright Eugene O’Neill and actor Charles Sidney Gilpin over the inclusion of the “N” word in the script for O’Neill’s first box office hit, The Emperor Jones in 1920. The play was turned into a film in 2020 to great acclaim.


Eugene O’Neill’s groundbreaking play was the first American play that featured a black actor in the lead role on Broadway. Charles S. Gilpin’s, portrayal of Emperor Brutus Jones was hailed as “revelatory,” he was named the finest actor of the age, the toast of the theatre world. It made stars of both men; and was O’Neill’s first commercial success. By 1926, their fortunes had taken very different turns. N explores how one word; lifted one of them to the heights of American theatre, but destroyed the other. One word that can devastate or empower. Join them on stage. What does the “N” word mean to you?


 “ ...powerful treatise on art, ego, and how the weight of a single word can crush the human soul.” Triangle Arts and Entertainment

“…a thoughtfully, considered piece.” The News and Observer

“A layered and nuanced double portrait.” Washington City Paper

“Compelling…” John Hopkins University.


Directed by: Joanna Godwin-Seidl         


Performance permission curtesy of Blue Moon Plays, LLC.

Interesting links and history on the "N" Word in the left hand column below!

Peter Steele 1.jpg

Randall Galera is Charles Gilpin

Randall Galera, a native of Brooklyn,

New York, now based in Vienna, Austria, is dedicated to honing a diverse array of talents, from tap dance to Taisha-ryu, medieval sword fighting, and fencing. Alongside his training, Randall is actively involved in producing various projects, including "The Royal Quest: Medieval Adventure," an American-style Renaissance festival, and a musical inspired by the works of Isaac Singer.

Notably, he recently graced the stage in Open House Theater's production of "Apartment 3A" by Jeff Daniels, and eagerly anticipates collaborating with Vienna Theater Project on Adrienne Pender's "N".

Peter Steele is Eugene O'Neill

Peter is a British actor and puppeteer from West Sussex in the UK. After graduating from Aberystwyth University in Wales, he completed his professional acting training at Drama Studio London. He also trained as a puppeteer with Little Angel Theatre, London. 

Previous theatre credits include the West End production and UK no.1 tour of Julia Donaldson's Room On The Broom (Tall Stories), Jim in The Glass Menagerie (Vienna's English Theatre), Dracula and A Christmas Carol (Open House Theatre, Vienna), Puck in A Midsummer Night's Dream (Southwark Playhouse), Spike (King's Head Theatre), Just So Stories (Yvonne Arnaud Theatre), Smike in the Off West End Theatre Award nominated Nicholas Nickleby, two seasons with Leatherhead and Swanage Rep companies and UK tours of The Wind In The Willows, The Importance Of Being Earnest andMacbeth.

His film credits include the lead roles in several short films and commercials for Ford, VW and Heycar. Peter has also written, directed and produced three short puppetry films: The Bird, which was co-produced with Dublin Smartphone Film Festival and premiered at The Irish Film Institute in 2022; ROY, which has won multiple awards at festivals around the world; and The Scaryglow, which was commissioned and co-produced by Little Angel Theatre, London. 

He is delighted to be joining Vienna Theatre Project for their production of N.


Adrienne Earle Pender is the Playwright

Adrienne Earle Pender began her writing career in 2001. Her first play, The Rocker, was a finalist in the Dayton Playhouse Future Fest 2002 Festival of New Works in Dayton, Ohio. The Rocker made its world premier in February 2004 at Theater in the Park in Raleigh, North Carolina. Her play, Stone Face was a selection in the Reader's Theater at the 2003 National Black Theater Festival, and was an alternate selection for the 2004 Edward Albee 12th Annual Last Frontier Theatre Conference in Valdez, Alaska. Her short play, The Murder of Love was selected for the Short Play Lab at the same conference. Additionally, Banana Split Lady made its debut at the 1st Annual Great Plains Theatre Conference in Nebraska. Her play, Somewhere In Between, had a staged reading at the Drama Book Shop in New York in 2010; a staged reading at Wordsmyth Theater in Houston, TX in May, 2014; and Somewhere In Between received a full production from Theater in the Park in Ralei#gh in September 2014. 

Her most recent play, "N," about African-American actor Charles S. Gilpin, was a finalist in the Dayton Playhouse 2016 Future Fest competition. "N" received a workshop and a staged reading at the Eugene O'Neill Festival in Danville, CA in September 2016, and made its world premiere in February 2017 at Theatre in the Park in Raleigh, NC. 

Adrienne received a Tao House Fellowship by the Eugene O’Neill Foundation in September 2015. She holds an MFA in Creative Writing from Wilkes University, and is a member of the Dramatist Guild.


Lisa Laner is Assistant to the Director

A young actress from South Tyrol, Italy. Graduated from the Film Academy in Vienna last year and is currently starring in several theatre productions at the city theatre of Bruneck.

The passionate musician is planning upcoming concerts in the city of Vienna for Spring, where she will perform Jazz Standards and old American Pop Songs. She is also working on her first EP as a Singer-Songwriter.

"N", is her debut as a director's assistant.


Lynne Ann Williams is Florence Gilpin

The Berlin-born American actress and singer studied musical theater at the American Musical and Dramatic Academy in New York. She began performing in Virginia, which eventually brought her back to Germany. Lynne has been performing in Vienna since 2010, both in English and German. Vocally she has worked with soul and jazz bands, co-founded the trio Circle in Berlin and a duo with guitarist Ian Scionti in Seville. She was also part of "Womedy", a music comedy troupe, for two years. Lynne teaches singing, plays the flute and piano, and writes and translates lyrics. Spanish is her third language.

Most recently Lynne played Raka in the operetta Die Blume von Hawaii at the Volkstheater Rostock and was thrilled to be cast for the role of Lucia in her first film. She portrayed Billie Holiday to standing ovations in Lady Day at Emerson's Bar and Grill in 2022 at Theater Drachengasse, Vienna. Other shows include:

2019/20 Jugend ohne Gott (Julius Caesar, Direktorin, Schüler) - Theater der Jugend (TDJ), Wien. 2018 Oliver Twist (Bürgermeisterin) - TDJ, Wien. 2018 Zwei Haare auf der Brust - nach Shakespear’s Herren von Verona (Gräfin) - Open House Theatre, Wien. 2018 A Study in Scarlett-Sherlock Holmes(Lucy Ferrier, Stamford, old woman, scoundrel) Open House Theatre, Wien. 2017 Hochgeschätztes Tieparterre-eine Jazzoper (Donna) - sämtliche Spielstätten-forlaufend. White Rabbit, Red Rabbit - Open House Theatre, Wien. 2016 The Miracle Worker (Viney) - TDJ, Wien. 2015 Disgraced (Jory) - Vienna Theatre Project, Wien. 2014 Die Unendliche Geschichte (II) (Urgl) - TDJ, Wien. 2013 Wie man unsterblich wird (Annie / Mrs. Willis) - TDJ, Wien. 2012 The Right Job (Lucy Abbadon und 4 weitere Rollen) - Theater im Prückel, Wien. 2012 Alice (Die Gräfin) - TDJ, Wien. 2011 Artus (Ginevra) 2011.

Paulo A Schaklhammer is Stage Crew

Currently studying at the “Bilinguale Schauspielakademie für Film und Bühne” in Vienna, he has worked on Projects such as “Cast iron lily”, “Artefakte”, various short films and “Rickerl” directed by Adrian Goiginger. In addition to his theatrical work, he also voiced commercials for Nöm, won a photography competition at the Polygon Gallery in Vancouver in cooperation with Timo Slupetzky and modeled for brands like Humanic and Gino Venturini.

Besides acting Paulo is a passionate painter and sculptor, he has cooperated several times with Matthias Griebler a renowned Austrian printmaker and sculptor. Paulo studied in New York at the “Stella Adler Studio of Acting” and is currently finishing his studies in Vienna.

He is thrilled to work with the Vienna Theatre Project for the first time and excited to be involved in such a fantastic play like “N”.


Marlene Pein - Costumes

Marlene spent two years studying fashion design and tailoring in Vienna before embarking on her career in the industry. She began by working on several local productions, including providing costume assistance for "Zu ebener Erde und im ersten Stock" (Nestroy Spiele Schwechat) and "Jedermann" (Sommertheater Mödling). She assisted with costumes for several student film productions and worked as a costume designer/creator at Musikschule Liesing.

In addition to her theatrical work, Marlene has accrued a few years of experience working backstage in Vienna's most famous theatres. She is also a passionate creator of high-quality historical costumes and frequently attends events dressed in her own creations.

After delving into the script, she was delighted to have the opportunity to work on costumes for a production that addresses such an important topic in American history.



Charles Sidney Gilpin, an actorsinger, and vaudevillian dancer, was the most successful African American stage performer in the early 20th Century.  He is best known for his portrayal of Brutus Jones in Eugene O’Neill’s The Emperor Jones. A Richmond, Virginia, native, Gilpin attended St. Francis School, a Catholic institution for colored children, until age 12, and served as a printer’s assistant at the Richmond Planet (c. 1890-1893). Gilpin married three times. His first wife was Florence Howard (married c. 1897). He met his second wife, Lillian Wood, when he was with the Lafayette Players. His third wife was Alma Benjamin Gilpin.

Gilpin showed great promise early on as a singer appearing in amateur theatricals in Richmond. He went to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the early 1890s, where he worked briefly for the Philadelphia Standard, but was let go after some employees complained about working with a Negro.

Thereafter, he worked permanently as a performer, touring with several traveling minstrel and vaudeville shows between 1896 and 1904.  In 1903, for example, Gilpin joined Hamilton, Ontario’s Canadian Jubilee Singers.  He also performed with Gus Hill’s Smart Set for one season (1904-05), playing Remus Boreland, the mayoral candidate in The Black Politician.  In 1906 Gilpin sang with the male chorus in Bert Williams and George Walker‘s Abyssinia on Broadway and on tour. After the tour, Gilpin founded the Pekin Stock Company at Robert T. Motts’s famed Pekin Theatre Company in Chicago, Illinois.

Gilpin acted in a variety of roles in plays as Captain Rufus (1907), The Husband(1907), The Merry Widower (1908), The Man Upstairs (1909), and The Chambermaid 1908). Between 1910 and 1911, Gilpin also starred in several productions for Jesse A. Shipp’s Stock Company that absorbed the Pekin Stock Company. From Chicago, Gilpin moved to New York City, New York where he performed at the Lafayette Theatre in The Old Man’s Boy (as Tom Bolden).  He was also the play’s Vocal Director from 1913 to 1914.

In 1915, Gilpin joined the Anita Bush Players at the Lincoln Theatre in Harlem as one of the featured performers. Bush changed the Company’s name to the Lafayette Theatre Players after it was relocated to the Lafayette Theatre, also in Harlem. As the Company’s star performer, he played in For His Daughter’s Honor, The Octoroon, and Within the Law. In 1916, Gilpin left the show during the rehearsal of Paid in Full over a salary dispute.

Between productions Gilpin worked temporarily as a barber, Pullman porter, and elevator operator.

In 1919, Gilpin played Reverend Custis, a former slave, in John Drinkwater’s Abraham Lincoln on Broadway. A year later, he landed the title role in The Emperor Jones at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York City for a short run. The Provincetown Players mounted the show in Greenwich Village, where it ran for 399 performances, after which it toured throughout the United States and later in London, England.  Gilpin’s performances in the long running The Emperor Jones, established him as the most recognized black actor on the American Stage to play the lead in a serious drama. Due to his failing health and a nervous breakdown in 1924, Gilpin was replaced in The Emperor Jones by Paul Robeson.

Gilpin’s work was recognized when in 1921 he was named by the Drama League of New York as one of the 10 best artists who had made valuable contributions to American Theatre.  Gilpin was the first African American actor so honored.  Gilpin later received the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Spingarn Medal in 1921 and was honored by a formal dinner at the White House hosted by President Warren G. Harding.  In 1922 the Dumas Dramatic Club (now the Karamu Players) of Cleveland, Ohio renamed itself the Gilpin Players in his honor.  Charles Gilpin died at age 52 in Eldridge Park, New Jersey.

The Emperor Jones by Eugene O'Neill

On the night of November 1, 1920, The Emperor Jones opened Off-Broadway for a short run at the 200-seat Provincetown Players’ Playwright’s Theatre on Macdougal Street, and it was an immediate and huge success. The first-night audience refused to leave even after repeated curtain calls, and early the next morning long lines formed at the box office. Because one had to be a “member” to see the company’s productions, the group’s subscription list doubled within days and the projected two-week run was extended.

In part the play was a great novelty as it presented an integrated cast and a captivating black actor in the lead role, but an unusually powerful script and startling scenic effects for such a small theatre contributed greatly to the play’s success. First-line theatre critics had been busy earlier in the week at Broadway openings and didn’t see the play for three days, but when they arrived they generally concurred with the audiences.

Plot Summary of the Play

Scene I

The Emperor Jones takes place on an island in the West Indies and opens in the elegant throne room of the island’s ruler or “emperor,” Brutus Jones. It is late afternoon and no one is present except for an old black peasant woman sneaking through the palace. A white trader named Smithers enters and interrogates the woman, asking her why the palace is deserted. Smithers learns that the natives of the island, led by a former native chief named Lem, have stolen all the horses and have headed to the nearby hills to plan a revolt against their oppressive emperor.

When the Emperor, Brutus Jones, enters, Smithers gradually reveals this news, but Jones remains calm. He arrived on the island two years earlier from the United States, where he had worked as a porter on a fancy Pullman train before going to prison for killing a man named Jeff over a craps game. Escaping prison, Jones had come to the island and found Smithers cheating the black natives with his trade goods. After briefly joining Smithers as an associate, Jones eclipsed Smithers and named himself Emperor. Convincing the natives that he had magical powers and could only be killed by a silver bullet, Jones felt secure. He continues to feel secure in the face of this native revolt because he has carefully planned a response to it. He has money stashed in a foreign bank account, an escape route through the woods mapped out in his mind, and food buried at the edge of the forest. Jones has even made for himself a good luck charm out of what he thinks is the only silver bullet on the island.

But as Jones outlines his escape plan to Smithers, a drum begins to beat in the distant hills, and Jones is initially startled by it. Smithers informs Jones that the natives have begun a war dance to work up their courage for killing their “emperor.” Smithers tells Jones that the natives will send ghosts after him into the dark forest, but Jones asserts that he’s not afraid of ghosts and that by nightfall he will have gotten such a head start on Lem’s troops that they will never catch up to him. At 3:30 in the afternoon, Jones casually sets off on foot for his getaway through the dense forest.

Scene II

Night has fallen sometime after 6:30 pm, and Jones has reached the edge of the dense forest. Fatigued from his afternoon hike in the hot sun, Jones rests, listening to the steady beat of the drum, pulsating at a little more than 72 beats a minute, the rate of the normal heart beat. However, Jones can’t find the food he so confidently hid near this spot. As he lights a match to see more clearly, the rate of the drum beat increases and “the Little Formless Fears”—hallucinations that represent Jones’s rising doubts—slide silently out of the darkness like black, shapeless grubworms “about the size of a creeping child.” When the Formless Fears laugh at Jones’s consternation, Jones notices them, pulls his pistol, and fires. In a flash, the Formless Fears are gone, and the drums begin beating more rapidly. Jones reassures himself and hurries into the dark forest.

Scene III

It is 9:00 at night and the beams of the newly risen moon create an eerie glow on the dark forest floor as Jones enters a small triangular clearing. There, the figure of black Jeff, the man Jones killed in a crap game in the United States, seems to be mechanically throwing dice. Jones enters the clearing, his face scratched and his elegant clothes torn from forcing his way through the thick underbrush in the dark. He hears the increasingly rapid beat of the distant drums, sees Jeff, and fires another shot.

The hallucinated image of Jeff disappears with the pistol shot and Jones leaves the forest path to plunge wildly into the underbrush.

Scene IV

It is an hour before midnight and from the forest Jones stumbles onto a wide dirt road running diagonally across the stage. His uniform is now ragged and torn, and he begins to discard parts of it to ease himself from the stifling heat. Exhausted, he throws himself down to rest but soon begins to hallucinate again. A small gang of black convicts in striped suits are working with picks and shovels. The white prison guard, armed with rifle and whip, demands that Jones join the convict group, and for a moment the nearly hypnotized Jones does. But when the hallucinated guard beats him, Jones responds by trying to hit the guard with his imaginary shovel. Realizing his hands are actually empty, Jones fires another shot from his pistol and all the imagined figures disappear. Jones plunges again into the forest, the drum beats increasing in volume and rapidity.

Scene V

It is an hour after midnight and Jones enters a large circular clearing and sits on a dead stump. In his exhaustion and misery, Jones hallucinates again and sees the stump as an auction block from the 1850s where a crowd has gathered to watch slaves bought and sold. When Jones becomes the slave being auctioned off, he fires at the auctioneer and planter trying to buy him, once again causing the images to disappear. Again Jones plunges into the forest as the drum beats quicken and increase in volume.

Scene VI

It is 3:00 in the morning and in a cleared space no more than five feet high under dense tree limbs Jones settles for another rest. The moonlight is shut out by the canopy and only a “vague, wan light filters through.” Jones’s silver bullet is all that remains in his gun. His clothes have all been torn away and what remains is no more than a breech cloth. Gradually, two rows of seated figures appear behind Jones in his next hallucination. The small space in the forest becomes a ship at sea and Jones a member of a slave group being carried to the new world. As this hallucination fades, the drum begins to beat even louder and quicker.

Scene VII

It is 5:00 in the morning and at the foot of a gigantic tree near a river Jones imagines an African witch-doctor dancing and chanting before him. As the drum beat reaches a frenzied pitch, Jones is hypnotized by the Witch Doctor’s performance. He begins to sway with the shaman and joins in the chanting. At the culmination of the dance, the Witch Doctor indicates that Jones must be sacrificed to the sacred crocodile river god, but Jones rouses a final defiance and fires his remaining silver bullet into the crocodile apparition.

Scene VIII

It is dawn and the final scene takes place in the identical spot at the foot of the forest where Jones started his journey in Scene II. Lem enters with his small band of soldiers, followed by Smithers. They examine Jones’s tracks, Smithers complaining that they have wasted their evening beating the drum and casting spells, Lem confident that they will still “kotch him.” The sound of snapping twigs in the forest alerts the soldiers and they shoot Jones, who has simply run in a circle all night. The sound of the drum abruptly ceases and Lem reveals that part of the evening’s ceremonies involved making their own silver bullets from melted coins. The soldiers show Jones’s dead body and exit, leaving Smithers to sneer at “the lot of ’em.”



The black man Brutus Jones killed over a crap game in the United States before the action of the play began. Appearing in Scene III as one of Jones’s hallucinations, Jeff is brown rather than black-skinned, thin, middle-aged, and dressed in a Pullman porter’s uniform. In Jones’s hallucination, Jeff tosses the dice like a robot.

Brutus Jones

The main character in The Emperor Jones, Brutus Jones is a tall and powerfully built American negro man of middle age. Formerly a Pullman (train) car porter in the United States, Jones comes to the West Indian island where the play takes place and becomes “emperor” after convincing the natives that he has magical powers. Before coming to the island, Jones had escaped from an American prison, where he was being confined for killing a man over a crap game. Jones exudes a strength and confidence that commands fear and respect from all around him even while he reigns quite ruthlessly as Emperor. His eyes indicate extraordinary cunning, intelligence, and a careful shrewdness.

To make himself appear regal, Jones wears a light-blue uniform decorated with brass buttons and heavy gold chevrons and braids. His pants are bright red with a light-blue stripe down the side and he wears patent leather boots with brass spurs and a holster with a long-barreled, pearl-handled revolver. In the play he speaks with a strongly marked black dialect, as in, “who dare whistle dat way in my palace?” Jones is filled with contempt for the former exploiter of the islanders, the white man, Smithers.


A former chieftain on the island and the leader of the natives who finally rebel against Jones’s dictatorial rule. The heavy-set Lem appears on stage only in the last scene, where he is dressed in a loincloth with a revolver and cartridge belt around his waist. 

Eugene O'Neill - Playwright 1888 – 1953

America’s First Major Playwright.

When Eugene O’Neill began writing for the stage early in the 20th century, American theatre was dominated by vaudeville and romantic melodramas. Influenced by Strindberg, Ibsen, and other European playwrights, O’Neill vowed to create a theatre in America, stripped of false sentimentality, which would explore the deepest stirrings of the human spirit. In 1914, he wrote: “I want to be an artist or nothing.”

During the 1920s, he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for three of his plays—Beyond the Horizon, “Anna Christie,” and Strange Interlude.


Other popular successes, including The Emperor Jones, The Hairy Ape, Desire Under the Elms, The Great God Brown, and Mourning Becomes Electra, brought him international acclaim. In 1936, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature—the only American playwright to be so honored.

During the 1920s, he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for three of his plays—Beyond the Horizon, “Anna Christie,” and Strange Interlude. Other popular successes, including The Emperor Jones, The Hairy Ape, Desire Under the Elms, The Great God Brown, and Mourning Becomes Electra, brought him international acclaim. In 1936, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature—the only American playwright to be so honored.

O’Neill experimented with new dramatic techniques and dared tackle such controversial issues as interracial marriage, the equality of the sexes, the power of the unconscious mind, and the hold of materialism on the American soul. In each of his plays, he sought to reveal the mysterious forces “behind life” which shape human destiny.


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